Any synovial joint may be affected in rheumatoid disease, with the knees, shoulders and elbows being frequently involved. Crico-arytenoid joint involvement in the larynx may lead to hoarseness and vocal cord collapse. Any synovium-lined structure may be involved such as tendon sheaths and bursae. Muscle wasting is common in rheumatoid disease and is secondary to disuse atrophy. Compressive neuropathies may also occur, the most common being carpal tunnel syndrome with an equivalent syndrome occurring in the feet, tarsal tunnel syndrome. In advanced rheumatoid disease, patient may present with severe disease, ulnar deviation of the metacarpo-phalangeal joints, rheumatoid nodules and a vasculitic lesion on the index finger of the left hand. The antimalarial hydroxychloroquine is effective in milder forms of rheumatoid disease. Its disease-modifying capacity is weaker than the other DMARDS and it does not appear to retard erosive disease. Monitoring for the rare event of retinal toxicity is necessary. Sulfasalazine is a compound of sulphapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid. Like hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine is effective in mild to moderate rheumatoid disease. Serious side effects are rare but blood dyscrasias, hepatotoxicity and skin reactions may occur. Gold salts have been used for over 50 years in the treatment of rheumatoid disease. Unfortunately over a third of patients develop serious side effects requiring cessation of therapy. Gold is now being used less frequently. Phlebitis is a fairly routine condition frequently occurring in the legs, whereby your body's veins become inflamed. Treatment for phlebitis is not an overly complex affair, usually consisting of nothing more than application of compression bandages or a warm compress, intended to increase blood flow. Although phlebitis usually resolves within seven to ten days, the ideal situation is to never develop the condition in the first place-to that end, the following dietary suggestions may be of use. The life expectancy of patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver is dependent upon the severity of their condition. A measure of the patient's condition is classified according to the Child-Pugh rating system. Physical therapists help people with injuries or disease to have better function and mobility. They do this by using certain kinds of exercise, electrical stimulation, ultrasounds and massage. Physical therapy programs offer master's degrees and doctoral degrees, which qualify students who graduate to work in hospitals, clinics, schools or homes. These programs teach students to give each patient a personalized treatment program to improve his health. Secondary hypogonadism, also known as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is a condition wherein the testes or ovaries do not function properly due to a malfunctioning hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Treatment is dependent on the sex of the individual and comes in a variety of forms. Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder affecting about 1 percent of people in the United States. People who have schizophrenia suffer from a variety of complicated and often debilitating symptoms, requiring lifelong treatment, management and support. Bipolar disorder is a severe manic-depressive disease evidenced by shifts in emotional highs and lows and ups and downs in energy levels. Bipolar disorder also lasts a lifetime, and lifelong treatment is required. Constipation occurs when digestion is delayed and fecal elimination occurs fewer than three times per week. Constipation and lower abdominal pain often occur together as a result of gas, low fiber intake or menstrual disorders like dysmenorrhea or endometriosis. Dehydration occurs when someone loses enough water to prevent the body from functioning properly. Severe dehydration can cause high potassium levels (hyperkalemia), which are dangerous if immediate treatment is not given. The medical term for a toothache is odontalgia. A person is considered to have a toothache whenever there is pain in or around a tooth. There are several reasons a person may experience a toothache. Cavities, gum disease, and an infection can all cause tooth pain. If you are suffering from a toothache resulting from an infection, there are some home remedies you can try to reduce the infection and the pain. The success of any treatment, including foot and ankle treatment depends on the severity of the condition. There are patients who purchase custom orthotic device like 'œarch supports' that are made of fur as well as more compressive materials. To say the truth, this custom orthotics obviously helps people curing their foot problem. However, flat foot condition will resist the correction if patient use an orthotics made up of hard plastic device. This is the reason the podiatrists suggest patient to purchase better supports made from materials that will hold up for longer periods. These types of custom orthotics will obviously help people to get rid of their problem. Not only that, sometimes the poor structure as well as diminished mechanical function that are associated with this type of feet results in additional leg, knee, hip, and back posture problems. Patients also feel pain during all ambulatory and activities. The podiatrists may also manifest different other chronic leg conditions as well as deformities. This chronic arthritic and inflammatory result in totally flat appearance to the inside arch of the human foot. These can also result in significant pain during walking and standing activities. Flat feet are common in infants and toddlers. As the child grows the arch is developed and by adulthood people have developed normal arches. Adult-acquired flatfoot generally occurs as a result of damage to the posterior tibial tendon, which helps hold up the arch of the foot. The tendon attaches to the calf muscle in the lower part of your leg, running down towards the ankle and then curving in to attach to the navicular bone, located in the middle of the inner aspect of the foot. When you walk, the tendon pulls up on the navicular bone, which helps form the arch of the foot. You Might Also Like Damage to the Tendon You may be able to relieve heel pain by stretching tight calf muscles. See a picture a calf stretch exercise.